The Romans and the Roman World I. Indeed, our culture carry forward their attitudes and predilections with as much energy and enthusiasm as the Romans did themselves. In more ways than one, we speak their language. The stage is no different.
History[ edit ] Historically, voice and data communications were based on methods of circuit switchingas exemplified in the traditional telephone network, wherein each telephone call is allocated a dedicated, end to end, electronic connection between the two communicating stations.
Such stations might be telephones or computers. The temporarily dedicated line typically comprises many intermediary lines which are assembled into a chain that reaches from the originating station to the destination station.
With packet switchinga network could share a single communication link for communication between multiple pairs of receivers and transmitters. The earliest ideas for a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users were formulated by computer scientist J.
Those ideas encompassed many of the features of the contemporary Internet.
The masterpieces of Greek drama date from the 5th century BC. At that time, in Athens, the audience sit on the bare hillside to watch performances on a temporary wooden stage. In the 4th century a stone auditorium is built on the site, and there is still a theatre there today - the theatre of Dionysus. Apr 09, · Yesterday is ancient history. What value can I add tomorrow?. Future potential is such an important part of the value equation, yet we pay it so little attention. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.
He convinced Ivan Sutherland and Bob Taylor that this network concept was very important and merited development, although Licklider left ARPA before any contracts were assigned for development.
Taylor recalls the circumstance: So, if I was talking online with someone at S. I said, "Oh Man! If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go.
Herzfeld to fund a network project in Februaryand Herzfeld transferred a million dollars from a ballistic missile defense program to Taylor's budget. In AprilRoberts held a design session on technical standards.
The initial standards for identification and authentication of users, transmission of characters, and error checking and retransmission procedures were discussed.
Building on his earlier work on queueing theoryKleinrock modelled the performance of packet-switched networks, which underpinned the development of the ARPANET. Most computer science companies regarded the ARPA proposal as outlandish, and only twelve submitted bids to build a network; of the twelve, ARPA regarded only four as top-rank contractors.
This team was led by Frank Heart and included Robert Kahn. The host computers were connected to the IMPs via custom serial communication interfaces. The system, including the hardware and the packet switching software, was designed and installed in nine months.
In addition to the front-panel lamps, the DDP computer also features a special set of 24 indicator lamps showing the status of the IMP communication channels. The network connected one computer in Utah with three in California. Later, the Department of Defense allowed the universities to join the network for sharing hardware and software resources.
The later work on internetworking did emphasize robustness and survivability, including the capability to withstand losses of large portions of the underlying networks. The goal was to exploit new computer technologies to meet the needs of military command and control against nuclear threats, achieve survivable control of US nuclear forces, and improve military tactical and management decision making.
This increased the survivability of the network in the face of significant interruption. Automatic routing was technically challenging at the time.
The ARPANET was designed to survive subordinate-network losses, since the principal reason was that the switching nodes and network links were unreliable, even without any nuclear attacks.
To build such a system was, clearly, a major military need, but it was not ARPA's mission to do this; in fact, we would have been severely criticized had we tried. Rather, the ARPANET came out of our frustration that there were only a limited number of large, powerful research computers in the country, and that many research investigators, who should have access to them, were geographically separated from them.
The message text was the word login; on an earlier attempt the l and the o letters were transmitted, but the system then crashed. About an hour later, after the programmers repaired the code that caused the crash, the SDS Sigma 7 computer effected a full login.
By 5 Decemberthe entire four-node network was established. Bythe number was host computers, with another host connecting approximately every twenty days. At about the same time a terrestrial circuit added a London IMP.
Rules and etiquette[ edit ] Because of its government funding, certain forms of traffic were discouraged or prohibited. Sending electronic mail over the ARPANet for commercial profit or political purposes is both anti-social and illegal.
Technology[ edit ] Support for inter-IMP circuits of up to It could also be configured as a Terminal Interface Processor TIPwhich provided terminal server support for up to 63 ASCII serial terminals through a multi-line controller in place of one of the hosts.Screening the Industrial City Saint Etienne, France, November Deadline for proposals: 31 January Cinema, an art of the masses yet also a very bourgeois art form, was born in the wake of industrialisation in the late nineteenth century.
This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
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THEATRE HISTORY - Beginning through the Renaissance. ORIGINS OF DRAMA. PERSPECTIVE PAINTING - Developed in the 15th c. in the art world (painter Masaccio, architect Brunelleschi). It created the illusion of space and distance, a magical spectacle which the Italians loved.