Policies and political mistakes of the Shah[ edit ] His strong policy of Westernization and close identification with a Western power the United States despite the resulting clash with Iran's Shi'a Muslim identity. Overnight, the year changed from to
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Integration of medical education and health service provision, control of some important communicable and non-communicable disease, some health initiatives and health financing system have been discussed from the viewpoint of ex-managers of the system.
Introduction The Islamic republic of Iran Iran is a great country with a wide area and dispersed population.
You may find only few countries in the world that neighbor 17 countries in which two of them involved in a concurring war.
The weather, culture, the environmental hazards and the infrastructures and ultimately heath indicators have a great diversity in Iran. The specific geographic situation of Iran and mass immigration from Afghanistan and Iraq, the wars and insecurity after it in the region, and illegal drug traffic from eastern borders with Pakistan and Afghanistan have all affected the health system in Iran 1.
There are noticeable health inequalities within the country; for instance, the difference between life expectancy between different provinces reaches 24 years.
While the major burden of disease in the country as a whole and specially in the large metropolitans is non communicable diseases NCDs including cardiovascular disease CVDcancer and injuries, the country is still faced with the problem of infectious diseases which in many instances are somehow related to its neighbor countries 23.
In the both recent epidemics of the Cholera which occurred in Iran in and through fingerprinting of the bacteria it was clearly shown that organisms was imported from Pakistan and Iraq respectively 4. All these reported cases were related to smuggled poultry from neighbor countries.
Two out of four countries which could not still eradicate poliomyelitis are neighbors of Iran. Despite of these challenges, it is now 12 years that Iran has obtained the certificate of polio eradication and sustained this success.
Malaria although previously endemic in Iran is now confined to three south eastern provinces which its majority of falciparum cases being foreigners who entered the country illegally.
These threats could not stop the success of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education MHOME in control of all of epidemics and even in helping the neighbor countries through the so called group 5 initiative which was launched on during Eastern Mediterranean regional meeting of the world health organization WHO between Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan and WHO with central role of Iran as the secretary.
This could have been done only through strengthening of the primary health care PHCactive surveillance and frequent monitoring, vaccination at borders and even sending free vaccines to the neighbor countries.
Working for the future is based on our current capacities. This is through analyzing the previous achievements and realizing today's needs and predicting fluctuating situations in tomorrow. In this study, we reviewed some of the achievements of Iranian health system in the recent decades.
Integration of Medical education and service provision Iran has applied the principles of Alma Ata but this was not just like rewriting a written statement; Iran has had it own model. Integration of the medical education and health services and accountability of the educational system to match the real needs of the population have changed our situation from a country hosting more than working foreign physicians into a country fulfilling all her needs in higher education in the health and medical sciences 5.
The expansion of medical education while the country was suffering from an imposed war which lasted 8 years and while confronting a sanction lasting now for more than 29 years is a unique experiment in the world. You may see such an expansion in other countries but this usually happened through foreign supports.
For the health workers or as is called in Iran Behvarz, the initial group was based on those rural inhabitants whom completed their elementary educations. They then entered the special training program for 2 years and then appointed as Behvarz to the health house covering up to people.
The major strength of the administration process was introducing the most appropriate local people to local health authorities by rural councils for being a Behavrz. This resulted in a proper environment that helped the health system to have support of the community.
Only through this support it was possible to improve the health indicators dramatically during a very short period. Although continuous professional development program for all of them were conducted and they become experienced and educated further but they had basically only elementary education.
The health system initiatives had to be tailored so that these 30, Behvarzes as the main acting bodies could be participated . The reason for choosing vital horoscope as a simple model of census has turned the Behavrzy into an university degree.
Although the central role of people for appointing the Behvarz have been maintained, they are now appointed from those rural inhabitants who have successively graduated from high schools.
This promotion in Behvarz activity now has increased the capacity of the health system and more sophisticated health programs could become a reality. For instance screening for diabetes and hypertension now covering almost in all inhabitants of the cities with less than 20, population and all rural regions.
Interestingly using HBA1c as an indicator of blood sugar control it was shown that known diabetic patients of this group have a better control of their blood sugar compared to urban inhabitants 78. The National Committee for Hepatitis selected a passive approach —media education — for mass vaccination.
The target populations in and included 1 and 1 adolescents respectively. In each year, Iran organized three rounds of vaccination throughout the country.
The overall coverage rate was The media education approach achieved acceptable outcomes in that campaign 9. And the impact of this vaccination in decreasing the burden of infections have been confirmed Mental health services in primary health care Mental health integration in primary care was started to screen for major psychiatric disorders and their referral cases.
Since substance use is one of the major causes of mental disorders burden in Iran, the initiatives were aimed to integrate the harm reduction programs which are now mainly a vertical program to the PHC 11 Developing e-health Computer based health data gathering and e health expansion covering other domains including referral system, insurance and even telemedicine now could become a reality.Before Islamic revolution of Iran, the absolute number of maternal death was over per year, when population was 35 million with an estimated annual birth number of , Now the absolute number of mother deaths is less than annually with an estimated million births per year.
The Iran Culture Iran is the Islamic Republic of Iran with Tehran being the capital.
The country is about million kilometers, which is slightly larger than Alaska. It is located in the Middle East bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf in the South and the Caspian Sea in the North.
The causes of the Iranian Revolution are numerous, with many different groups in the opposition claiming different grievances and hoping for different outcomes. However, by the height of the revolution, they had all mobilized behind the calls for freedom, justice, and liberty espoused by the cleric Ayatollah Khomeini.
Causes behind Iran's protests: A preliminary account. The dual evil of Rouhani's neoliberal economic policies and Iran's authoritarianism is behind the recent unrest.
The Islamic Republic of Iran began with the Iranian Revolution. The first major demonstrations to overthrow Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi began in January  The new theocratic Constitution — whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country — was approved in December The Causes and Effects of the Iranian Revolution Religiously and Politically Words Jun 23rd, 10 Pages A revolution is a mass movement that intends to violently transform the old government into a new political system.