Points and questions to consider for a responsible way forward for gene editing in humans Heidi C. Beyond safety issues, somatic gene editing in humans does raise ethical, legal and social issues ELSIhowever, it is suggested to be less challenging to existing ethical and legal frameworks; indeed somatic gene editing is already applied in pre- clinical trials.
Nevertheless, in these pioneering studies, it was far from clear what variables would prove relevant. These early studies gave way to formal multi-locus analyses that allowed the ex- amination of multiple factors simultaneously, pro- viding increased power to detect the effects of weaker loci and identifying interactions between loci .
In contrast, the data for IDDM1 and IDDM4 were consistent with ge- netic heterogeneity, a model in which risk is caused by any of the multiple alleles and loci .
Furthermore, in the data reported by Guo et al. Subsequently, some very large studies have failed to find an association , while others confirmed the association between SUMO4 M55V polymor- phism and T1D . This region is homologous to that on proximal mouse chromosome 1 where the Idd5 T1D gene was subsequently identified in diabetes- prone NOD mice , and contains the disease candidate genes CTLA4 and CD28 that encode re- ceptors on T cells involved in control of T cell acti- vation.
CTLA4 at 2q33 was considered a strong candidate because it mediates T cell apoptosis and negatively regulates T cell activation .
Similar studies in British, Sardinian, and Ameri- can families did not find an association between this gene and T1D . A meta-analysis of 33 independ- ent studies showed an odds ratio of 1. The disease-susceptible genotype was associated with lower expression of sCTLA-4 in a gene dose-dependant manner.
Similarly, sequence- dependent variation in Ctla4 isoforms were identi- fied in T1D-susceptible NOD mice, and differential expression of one appeared to mediate the allelic variation in T1D risk that maps to this chromoso- mal region .By combining these genetic data with archaeological and linguistic information, a nthropologists have been able to discern the origins of Homo sapiens in Africa and to track the timing and location of the waves of human migration out of Africa that led to the eventual spread of humans to other con tinents.
HUMAN BIOLOGICAL VARIATION James H. Mielke University of Kansas Lyle W.
Konigsberg University of Tennessee John H. Relethford State University of New York College at Oneonta New Y. delivery of the final risk assessment, both sides of the cloning argument intensified their efforts to either ensure the risk assessment was published or derail it and delay or prevent cloning from becoming officially declared safe.
The process by which a ―culture of fertility‖ is learned by children from their parents (intergenerational transmission of fertility) shows the strong par- allels between research on intergenerational fertility correlations, and cultural and genetic evolutionary models of humans.
The theory of costs is a cornerstone of economic thinking, and figures crucially in the study of human action and society. From the first day of a principles-level course to the most advanced academic literature, costs play a vital role in virtually all behaviors and economic outcomes.
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