Industrial[ edit ] Sodium acetate is used in the textile industry to neutralize sulfuric acid waste streams and also as a photoresist while using aniline dyes. It is also a pickling agent in chrome tanning and helps to impede vulcanization of chloroprene in synthetic rubber production. In processing cotton for disposable cotton pads, sodium acetate is used to eliminate the buildup of static electricity. Concrete longevity[ edit ] Sodium acetate is used to mitigate water damage to concrete by acting as a concrete sealantwhile also being environmentally benign and cheaper than the commonly used epoxy alternative for sealing concrete against water permeation.
|User Contributions:||H2O When gases, liquids, or solids dissolve in a solvent like waterheat may be generated or absorbed. It depends on the total energy of the three below steps.|
|potato hydration experiment - (cool) progeny||Most of that is contained in our skin, inner organs and brain! DIY Potato Hydration Experiment This summer science activity focuses on the effects of hydration on the body by using potatoes and household items!|
Basing on both experiments and practice, the authors elaborated the positive influence and principle of sugar ordinary table sugar on concrete retarding, liquidity, density, hydration heat, strength and other aspects, introduced good effect, adding ratio and issues needing attention of adding sugar in the process of concrete construction, highlighted advantages of being easy to obtained and with low cost, comparing with other additives, reached the conclusion that sugar is a kind of good additive to be used in concrete construction especially in undeveloped countries.
Common retarders are with disadvantages of big mixing amount, high cost, and not good effect.
However, using sugar sugar in this paper means ordinary table sugar as retarder, not only the effect is remarkable, but also the cost is low. Besides of being a kind of retarder, it has other prominent effect.
By that I Mean, we can describe sugar as a sort of concrete admixture with excellent quality and reasonable price. Through the lab experiments and multiple applications conducted by the authors, effective functions of sugar on concrete are given as follows. First of allretarding on concrete In large volume concrete construction, especially concrete pouring construction in summer high temperature such as large volume base, sliding framework etc.
Common solution is to add retarder in concrete production. But using sugar referred previously, only 0. Besides, achieving of such materials is convenient.
The retarding effect of sugar actually has something to do with the glucose catalytic principle. According to the molecular formula of sugar, it belongs to the polyhydroxy compound.
Its surface has strong polarity, thus resulting in solid liquid adsorption, molecular hydroxyl groups in the cement surface hindered cement hydration process, crystal contact between is shielded, hinders the crystallization of continued growth, changes the structure of the forming process, main changes to delay and delay of three calcium silicate hydrate crystal transformation, following table is the retarding time of concrete mixed with ordinary Portland cement by sugar according to the experimental data from laboratory and field application, in the daytime maximum temperature 31 degrees Celsius on average temperature of 26 degrees Celsius: For practical application trial mixture should be done previously according to specific environment temperature and the concrete proportion, in order to get the necessary sugar amount for experimental retarding time that meets actual retarding requirements.
As well as that, in these thin concrete projects, construction quality will be influenced by bad flowability and hard flap. The bad effects are even more serious to water pools with anti-permeability requirement, grain silos and cement silos with air tightness requirement.
If we handle this issue by increasing water amount to increase collapsed slump, it is inevitable that this method does harm to concrete strength and anti-permeability. Instead, we can solve this problem by adding appropriate amount of sugar.
The authors made experiments in the laboratory, added sugar 0. By that I mean, when the mixing amount surpass 0. On the site, if we add sugar with amount of 0. That is to say, without changing water cement ratio, the flowability of concrete will be greatly increased.
In practical construction, it is not only easier for workers to pour into formwork, but also more convenient for workers to vibrate, so it is beneficial for increasing anti-permeability of concrete.
Reduce hydration heat and temperature cracks In mass concrete construction, temperature cracks often appear due to the uncontrollable temperature difference between inside and outside mainly resulting from the heat hydration of cement.
While retarding effect of sugar delays and postpones the conversion of tricalcium silicate crystal hydrates, delays heat hydration of cement. And reduces hydration heat peak, then reduces the cracks of concrete caused by temperature difference.
It is proved by practice that in term of mass concrete construction without adding sugar, its center temperature peaked at 70 degrees Celsius. Obviously, sugar not only can retard concrete, but also can reduce its hydration heat. Using sugar as retarder can increase the later strength of concrete.
The author did three experiments, with the same concrete proportioning, the result of comparative experiments on the concrete strength with or without sugar can be drawn as follows. Different environment conditions and different concrete proportioning etc.
The author added 0. This shows that in the case of the same proportions, early strength of concrete with sugar is lower than that without sugar. But late strength 28d or 28d later will be slightly higher. The reason is, water will be segregated on the concrete with sugar surface.
This reflects sugar has water reducing rate as an additive. In this way, the late strength of concrete will be improved. The authors did an experiment like this. By adding sugar 0. Above all, amount of sugar added in concrete cannot be excessive.summer kid science: potato hydration experiment.
salt, and sugar water on the potatoes and how that effects how much water they retain. Materials. 1 potato 3 small saucers/mason jars for water Salt Sugar After playing outside for an hour, would soda or water hydrate you faster?
Download Experiment PDF.
Tags: kitchen science potato. PREPARATION OF CARBONATES & BICARBONATES. Carbonic acid is formed when carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in water. H 2 O + CO 2 H 2 CO 3. Though looking simple, this reaction is the basic principle involved in the manufacture of club soda, coca cola, Pepsi etc.
LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION: EXTRACTION OF ACIDS OR BASES FROM NEUTRAL ORGANICS Background Extraction is one of humankind’s oldest chemical operations. The preparation of a carboxylate salt, “RNH 2 ” for neutral amine, and “RNH 3 +” for ionic ammonium salt. &roohfw dq,5 vshfwuxp ri \rxu surgxfw (qvxuh wkh shdnv duh odehohg 3uhsduh d vroxwlrq iru frqgxfwdqfh dqg 89 9lv phdvxuhphqwv xvlqj d p/ yroxphwulf iodvn &roohfw wkh 89 9lv vshfwuxp lq d sodvwlf fxyhwwh iurp qp wr qp 0hdvxuh wkh frqgxfwdqfh.
experiemtn 5 hydrate salt The goal of Experiment 12 was to learn how to calculate the percent of water (by mass) in barium chloride and an unknown hydrate salt, as well as properly calculating the water of crystallization for the unknown hydrate salt. Weigh about 5 tablespoons of salt and gradually add the salt to the tap water, stirring to mix.
Stop adding salt when it no longer dissolves. Repeat the mixing steps with 1/2 cup each of ice water and hot water; determine at which temperature more salt dissolves.