All these elements tend to disturb the natural composition of air and make it harmful for our health. Keeping the air quality at a safe level is one of the major challenges faced by modern urban communities today. Farmers also need to be aware of the chemicals they use, because it may runoff and contaminate nearby bodies of water.
What Is Soil Pollution? In the case of contaminants which occur naturally in soil, even when their levels are not high enough to pose a risk, soil pollution is still said to occur if the levels of the contaminants in soil exceed the levels that should naturally be present. Types of Pollution Radiation Chemical Oil-spill Noise pollution Soil Pollution Causes All soils, whether polluted or unpolluted, contain a variety of compounds contaminants which are naturally present.
Such contaminants include metals, inorganic ions and salts e. These compounds are mainly formed through soil microbial activity and decomposition of organisms e.
Additionally, various compounds get into the soil from the atmosphere, for instance with precipitation water, as well as by wind activity or other types of soil disturbances, and from surface water bodies and shallow groundwater flowing through the soil.
When the amounts of soil contaminants exceed natural levels what is naturally present in various soilspollution is generated. There are two main causes through which soil pollution is generated: Natural Pollutants Natural processes can lead to an accumulation of toxic chemicals in the soil.
This type of contamination has only been recorded in a few cases, such as the accumulation of higher levels of perchlorate in soil from the Atacama Desert in Chile, a type of accumulation which is purely due to natural processes in arid environments.
They can pollute the soil either alone or combined with several natural soil contaminants. Man-made soil pollution is usually caused by the improper disposal of waste coming from industrial or urban sources, industrial activities, and agricultural pesticides.
The main pollutants of the soil are the biological agents and some of the human activities. Soil contaminants are all products of soil pollutants that contaminate the soil. Human activities that pollute the soil range from agricultural practices that infest the crops with pesticide chemicals to urban or industrial wastes or radioactive emissions that contaminate the soil with various toxic substances.
Biological Agents Biological agents work inside the soil to introduce manures and digested sludge coming from the human, bird and animal excreta into the soil. Agricultural Practices The soil of the crops is polluted to a large extent with pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, slurry, debris, and manure.
Urban Waste Urban waste consists of garbage and rubbish materials, dried sludge and sewage from domestic and commercial waste. Industrial Waste Steel, pesticides, textiles, drugs, glass, cement, petroleum, etc. Examples of the most common and problematic soil pollutants can be found below.Pollution and physical barriers to root growth promote loss of urban tree cover.
Animal populations are inhibited by toxic substances, vehicles, and the loss of habitat and food sources.
Solutions. "Toxic Development: Pollution in India" documents the pollution crisis in both rural and urban areas by focusing on the environmental and social impacts of three of India’s most under-reported but leading causes of pollution: chromium contamination from tanneries along the Ganges river, lead pollution from battery recycling plants in Kolkata.
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Drinking water can be a source of exposure to chemicals caused by nutrient pollution. U.S. Geological Survey found that nitrates were too high in 64 percent of shallow monitoring wells in agricultural and urban areas.
Causes of Urban Heat Island The UHI is an ‘inadvertent’ modification of the climate, caused by changes to the form and composition of the land surface and atmosphere. When a land cover of buildings and roads replaces green space, the thermal, radiative, moisture and aerodynamic properties of the surface and the atmosphere are altered.
Petrochemical waste is one of the main causes of water pollution in urban areas. Sewage disposal sometimes causes water pollution Sewage is another human product which often ends up as a major pollutant of water sources.
Read chapter The Characteristics of Urban Air Pollution in China--XIAOYAN TANG: In October , a group of experts met in Beijing under the auspices of t.