Political ideologies in 20th century europe

Specifically, it cannot adapt to the strong democracies in which extreme right parties operate, nor to the ideology of radical Islamic groups. This paper begins by defining fascism.

Political ideologies in 20th century europe

The Colonization of Africa Ehiedu E. Iweriebor — Hunter College Between the s andAfrica faced European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressures, military invasions, and eventual conquest and colonization.

Political ideologies in 20th century europe

At the same time, African societies put up various forms of resistance against the attempt to colonize their countries and impose foreign domination. By the early twentieth century, however, much of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, had been colonized by European powers.

The European imperialist push into Africa was motivated by three main factors, economic, political, and social. It developed in the nineteenth century following the collapse of the profitability of the slave trade, Political ideologies in 20th century europe abolition and suppression, as well as the expansion of the European capitalist Industrial Revolution.

The imperatives of capitalist industrialization—including the demand for assured sources of raw materials, the search for guaranteed markets and profitable investment outlets—spurred the European scramble and the partition and eventual conquest of Africa.

Thus the primary motivation for European intrusion was economic.


The Scramble for Africa But other factors played an important role in the process. The political impetus derived from the impact of inter-European power struggles and competition for preeminence. One way to demonstrate national preeminence was through the acquisition of territories around the world, including Africa.

Ehiedu E. G. Iweriebor – Hunter College

The social factor was the third major element. As a result of industrialization, major social problems grew in Europe: These social problems developed partly because not all people could be absorbed by the new capitalist industries.

One way to resolve this problem was to acquire colonies and export this "surplus population. Eventually the overriding economic factors led to the colonization of other parts of Africa.

Thus it was the interplay of these economic, political, and social factors and forces that led to the scramble for Africa and the frenzied attempts by European commercial, military, and political agents to declare and establish a stake in different parts of the continent through inter-imperialist commercial competition, the declaration of exclusive claims to particular territories for trade, the imposition of tariffs against other European traders, and claims to exclusive control of waterways and commercial routes in different parts of Africa.

His theories took root in Europe, but never became the philosophy behind European governments, but it eventually took new forms in early 20th century Russia and China. NATIONALISM In older forms of political organizations, the glue of political unity came from . Nov 17,  · Revolution and the growth of industrial society, – Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events. The French Revolution broke out in , and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades. World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during the late 19th . In the 20th century, Catholic political movements became very strong in Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Ireland, France and Latin America. What these movements had in common was a defense of the acquired rights of the Catholic Church (attacked by anticlerical politicians) and a defense of Christian faith and moral values (threatened by increasing secularization).

This scramble was so intense that there were fears that it could lead to inter-imperialist conflicts and even wars. To prevent this, the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck convened a diplomatic summit of European powers in the late nineteenth century. This was the famous Berlin West African conference more generally known as the Berlin Conferenceheld from November to February The conference produced a treaty known as the Berlin Act, with provisions to guide the conduct of the European inter-imperialist competition in Africa.

Some of its major articles were as follows: The Principle of Notification Notifying other powers of a territorial annexation The Principle of Effective Occupation to validate the annexations Freedom of Trade in the Congo Basin Freedom of Navigation on the Niger and Congo Rivers Freedom of Trade to all nations Suppression of the Slave Trade by land and sea This treaty, drawn up without African participation, provided the basis for the subsequent partition, invasion, and colonization of Africa by various European powers.

Conservatism: Conservatism, political doctrine that emphasizes the value of traditional institutions and practices. history of Europe: Political patterns These groupings were not mass-based political parties in the 20th-century sense but rather factions of the elite; believing the majority of society to be ill-prepared for democracy. In addition to revising our view of the interwar period and the building of European democracies, this book cuts against the grain of most current theorizing in political science by explicitly discussing when and how ideas influence political behavior. America's Advance through Twentieth-Century Europe (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press the ‘desperately modernizing’ drive of the Russian government and military in the early 20th century, particularly after the M. B. Steger, The Rise of the Global Imaginary: Political Ideologies from the French Revolution to the Global War.

The African Resistance The European imperialist designs and pressures of the late nineteenth century provoked African political and diplomatic responses and eventually military resistance.

During and after the Berlin Conference various European countries sent out agents to sign so-called treaties of protection with the leaders of African societies, states, kingdoms, decentralized societies, and empires. The differential interpretation of these treaties by the contending forces often led to conflict between both parties and eventually to military encounters.

For Europeans, these treaties meant that Africans had signed away their sovereignties to European powers; but for Africans, the treaties were merely diplomatic and commercial friendship treaties. After discovering that they had in effect been defrauded and that the European powers now wanted to impose and exercise political authority in their lands, African rulers organized militarily to resist the seizure of their lands and the imposition of colonial domination.

This situation was compounded by commercial conflicts between Europeans and Africans. During the early phase of the rise of primary commodity commerce erroneously referred to in the literature as "Legitimate Trade or Commerce"Europeans got their supplies of trade goods like palm oil, cotton, palm kernel, rubber, and groundnut from African intermediaries, but as the scramble intensified, they wanted to bypass the African intermediaries and trade directly with sources of the trade goods.

Naturally Africans resisted and insisted on the maintenance of a system of commercial interaction with foreigners which expressed their sovereignties as autonomous political and economic entities and actors.

For their part, the European merchants and trading companies called on their home governments to intervene and impose "free trade," by force if necessary. It was these political, diplomatic, and commercial factors and contentions that led to the military conflicts and organized African resistance to European imperialism.

African military resistance took two main forms: While these were used as needed by African forces, the dominant type used depended on the political, social, and military organizations of the societies concerned.

In general, small-scale societies, the decentralized societies erroneously known as "stateless" societiesused guerrilla warfare because of their size and the absence of standing or professional armies.

Instead of professional soldiers, small groups of organized fighters with a mastery of the terrain mounted resistance by using the classical guerrilla tactic of hit-and-run raids against stationary enemy forces. This was the approach used by the Igbo of southeastern Nigeria against the British.Dec 13,  · POLITICAL SCIENCE Popular political Ideologies in the 20th Century A brief Study of popular 20th Century political trends.

[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. A summary of Battling Ideologies () in 's Europe (). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Europe () and what it means.

Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Art and Ideologies of the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century Collection by Karah Walser Historians must broaden their approach to understanding the connections between political and ideological movements and artistic design.

The Social Democratic Moment — Sheri Berman | Harvard University Press

These political ideologies are, for the most part, mutually exclusive. So, a liberal government does not usually practice socialism, nor does an absolute ruler follow liberalism.

The five major political ideologies have played a key role in history by shaping governments and political movements. The. The labourer retreats organised by Belgian Jesuits at the end of the 19th and the first decades of the 20th century provide an interesting example of the role played by religious institutes within Catholic ‘communicative communities’.

Modern capitalism emerged in the early nineteenth century in western Europe and the European offshoots capitalist ideologies of the twentieth century. Standing at the end of the twentieth century, we can On political grounds these societies were based on.

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