Colonial literature[ edit ] Because of the large immigration to Boston in the s, the articulation of Puritan ideals, and the early establishment of a college and a printing press in Cambridgethe New England colonies have often been regarded as the center of early American literature. However, the first European settlements in North America had been founded elsewhere many years earlier.
Kazimir MalevichBlack Square, oil on canvas, Judd's sculpture was showcased in at Green Gallery in Manhattan, as were Flavin's first fluorescent light works, while other leading Manhattan galleries like Leo Castelli Gallery and Pace Gallery also began to showcase artists focused on geometric abstraction.
In addition there were two seminal and influential museum exhibitions: Guggenheim Museum curated by Lawrence Alloway also in that showcased Geometric abstraction in the American art world via Shaped canvasColor Fieldand Hard-edge painting.
Klein had painted monochromes as early asand held the first private exhibition of this work in —but his first public showing was the publication of the Artist's book Yves: Peintures in November Minimalism was also a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism that had been dominant in the New York School during the s and s.
Painting, minimalism did not reject Clement Greenberg 's claims about modernist painting's  reduction to surface and materials so much as take his claims literally. According to Lawson, minimalism was the result, even though the term "minimalism" was not generally embraced by the artists associated with it, and many practitioners of art designated minimalist by critics did not identify it as a movement as such.
Also taking exception to this claim was Clement Greenberg himself; in his postscript to his essay Modernist Painting he disavowed this interpretation of what he said, writing: There have been some further constructions of what I wrote that go over into preposterousness: That I regard flatness and the inclosing of flatness not just as the limiting conditions of pictorial art, but as criteria of aesthetic quality in pictorial art; that the further a work advances the self-definition of an art, the Salvador late or early by sandra cisneros essay that work is bound to be.
The philosopher or art historian who can envision me—or anyone at all—arriving at aesthetic judgments in this way reads shockingly more into himself or herself than into my article.
They very explicitly stated that their art was not about self-expression, and unlike the previous decade's more subjective philosophy about art making theirs was 'objective'. In general, minimalism's features included geometricoften cubic forms purged of much metaphorequality of parts, repetitionneutral surfaces, and industrial materials.
Robert Morrisa theorist and artist, wrote a three part essay, "Notes on Sculpture 1—3", originally published across three issues of Artforum in In these essays, Morris attempted to define a conceptual framework and formal elements for himself and one that would embrace the practices of his contemporaries.
These essays paid great attention to the idea of the gestalt — "parts Beyond Objects", originally published in Artforum,continuing on to say that "indeterminacy of arrangement of parts is a literal aspect of the physical existence of the thing.
One of the first artists specifically associated with minimalism was the painter Frank Stellafour of whose early "black paintings" were included in the show, 16 Americansorganized by Dorothy Miller at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
The width of the stripes in Frank Stellas's black paintings were often determined by the dimensions of the lumber he used for stretchers to support the canvas, visible against the canvas as the depth of the painting when viewed from the side.
Stella's decisions about structures on the front surface of the canvas were therefore not entirely subjective, but pre-conditioned by a "given" feature of the physical construction of the support.
In the show catalog, Carl Andre noted, "Art excludes the unnecessary. Frank Stella has found it necessary to paint stripes. There is nothing else in his painting.
Stella received immediate attention from the MoMA show, but other artists—including Kenneth NolandGene DavisRobert Motherwelland Robert Ryman —had also begun to explore stripes, monochromatic and Hard-edge formats from the late 50s through the s.
Donald Judd had started as a painter, and ended as a creator of objects. His seminal essay, "Specific Objects" published in Arts Yearbook 8,was a touchstone of theory for the formation of minimalist aesthetics.
In this essay, Judd found a starting point for a new territory for American art, and a simultaneous rejection of residual inherited European artistic values.
He pointed to evidence of this development in the works of an array of artists active in New York at the time, including Jasper JohnsDan Flavin and Lee Bontecou.
Of "preliminary" importance for Judd was the work of George Earl Ortman who had concretized and distilled painting's forms into blunt, tough, philosophically charged geometries. These Specific Objects inhabited a space not then comfortably classifiable as either painting or sculpture.
That the categorical identity of such objects was itself in question, and that they avoided easy association with well-worn and over-familiar conventions, was a part of their value for Judd. This movement was heavily criticized by modernist formalist art critics and historians.
Some critics thought minimal art represented a misunderstanding of the modern dialectic of painting and sculpture as defined by critic Clement Greenbergarguably the dominant American critic of painting in the period leading up to the s.
The most notable critique of minimalism was produced by Michael Frieda formalist critic, who objected to the work on the basis of its "theatricality". In Art and Objecthood published in Artforum in June he declared that the minimal work of art, particularly minimal sculpture, was based on an engagement with the physicality of the spectator.Lesson: Open Response: Short Story: Salvador.
Michaela Crowley Boston Preparatory Charter Public School Hyde Park, MA Views. 27 Downloads. 5 Favorites 7th grade ELA Open Response Main Idea “Salvador Late or Early” by Sandra Cisneros. Do Now Review (5) Do Now Answers #1=b. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Lesson: Open Response: Short Story: Salvador. Michaela Crowley Boston Preparatory Charter Public School Hyde Park, MA Views.
5 Favorites 7th grade ELA Open Response Main Idea “Salvador Late or Early” by Sandra Cisneros. Do Now Review (5) Do Now Answers #1=b. Salvador Late or Early Sandra Cisneros Salvador with eyes the color of caterpillar, Salvador of the crooked hair and crooked teeth, Collecting Ideas for an Essay Analyzing a Character Focus on actions.
Salvador seems to be in perpetual motion. If you want to get an idea of the. After the War of , there was an increasing desire to produce a uniquely American literature and culture, and a number of literary figures emerged, among them Washington Irving, William Cullen Bryant, and James Fenimore leslutinsduphoenix.com wrote humorous works in Salmagundi and the satire A History of New York, by Diedrich Knickerbocker ().
Bryant wrote early romantic and nature-inspired. Small impressionistic scene, illustration, descriptive passage, short essay, fiction, or nonfiction work focusing on one particular moment or giving an impression about an idea, character, setting, mood, aspect, or an object.