The "dark triad" of three personality traits: Sometimes called "dark personality. Psychopathy is a psychological condition in which the individual shows a profound lack of empathy for the feelings of others, a willingness to engage in immoral and antisocial behavior for short-term gains, and extreme egocentricity. Psychopaths do not have the fear response experienced by most of us to the potential negative consequences of criminal or risky behavior and are relatively insensitive to punishment.
Social influence Social influence is an overarching term given to describe the persuasive effects people have on each other. It is seen as a fundamental value in social psychology and overlaps considerably with research on attitudes and persuasion.
The three main areas of social influence include: Social influence is also closely related to the study of group dynamics, as most principles of influence are strongest when they take place in social groups.
The first major area of social influence is conformity.
Conformity is defined as the tendency to act or think like other members of a group. The identity of members within a group, i. Individual variation among group members plays a key role in the dynamic of how willing people will be to conform. In the Asch conformity experimentspeople frequently followed the majority judgment, even when the majority was objectively wrong.
The second major area of social influence research is compliance. Compliance refers to any change in behavior that is due to a request or suggestion from another person. The foot-in-the-door technique is a compliance method in which the persuader requests a small favor and then follows up with requesting a larger favor, e.
A related trick is the bait and switch. Obedience as a form of compliance was dramatically highlighted by the Milgram studywherein people were ready to administer shocks to a person in distress on a researcher's command.
This is a prediction that, in being made, actually causes itself to become true. For example, in the stock marketif it is widely believed that a crash is imminent, investors may lose confidence, sell most of their stock, and thus actually cause the crash.
Similarly, people may expect hostility in others and actually induce this hostility by their own behavior. Group dynamics A group can be defined as two or more individuals that are connected to each another by social relationships. They have a number of emergent qualities that distinguish them from aggregates: Implicit rules and expectations for group members to follow, e.
Implicit rules and expectations for specific members within the group, e. Patterns of liking within the group, and also differences in prestige or status, e. Temporary groups and aggregates share few or none of these features, and do not qualify as true social groups.
People waiting in line to get on a bus, for example, do not constitute a group. To a large extent, humans define themselves by the group memberships which form their social identity.
The shared social identity of individuals within a group influences intergroup behavior, the way in which groups behave towards and perceive each other.
The 50 Most Influential Psychologists in the World 1. John R. Anderson | Cognitive Psychology. Anderson was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in He received his bachelor’s degree from the University of British Columbia in , and his PhD in . dissonance theory (Festinger, ). The theory has obviously stood the test of time in The theory has obviously stood the test of time in that it is mentioned in most general and social psychology textbooks today. Review of Psychopathy. William D. Tillier; Calgary Alberta; Update: Under construction. and before. Table of contents. 1). Synopsis of Psychopathy.
These perceptions and behaviors in turn define the social identity of individuals within the interacting groups. The tendency to define oneself by membership in a group may lead to intergroup discrimination, which involves favorable perceptions and behaviors directed towards the in-group, but negative perceptions and behaviors directed towards the out-group.
Groups often moderate and improve decision making ,[ citation needed ] and are frequently relied upon for these benefits, such as in committees and juries.
A number of group biases, however, can interfere with effective decision making. For example, group polarization, formerly known as the "risky shift," occurs when people polarize their views in a more extreme direction after group discussion.
More problematic is the phenomenon of groupthink. This is a collective thinking defect that is characterized by a premature consensus or an incorrect assumption of consensus, caused by members of a group failing to promote views which are not consistent with the views of other members.
Groupthink occurs in a variety of situations, including isolation of a group and the presence of a highly directive leader. Janis offered the Bay of Pigs Invasion as a historical case of groupthink.In the field of psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or leslutinsduphoenix.com discomfort is triggered by a situation in which a belief of a person clashes with new evidence perceived by that person.
10 Decisions, Action, AnD neuroscience A Contemporary Perspective on Cognitive Dissonance Eddie Harmon-Jones Texas A&M University I first got to . Individuals come to “know” their own attitudes, emotions, and other internal states partially by inferring them from observations of their own overt behavior and/ .
Rozenberg Quarterly aims to be a platform for academics, scientists, journalists, authors and artists, in order to offer background information and scholarly reflections that contribute to mutual understanding and dialogue in a seemingly divided world.
dissonance theory (Festinger, ). The theory has obviously stood the test of time in The theory has obviously stood the test of time in that it is mentioned in most general and social psychology textbooks today.
Elliot Aronson (born January 9, ) is an American psychologist who is best known for his experiments on the theory of cognitive dissonance and for his invention of the Jigsaw Classroom, a cooperative teaching technique which facilitates learning while reducing interethnic hostility and leslutinsduphoenix.comality: American.